Release EDRefCard - makes a printable reference card of your controller bindings

will this be updated to include the Odyssey key binds?
found the alternative link and its exhalent Please keep up the good work.
 
Would love to see support for the Virpil VPC MongoosT-50CM3 Throttle. Is there anything I can do to help make that possible?
 
EDRefCard is live again at http://edrefcard.slions.net/
So pleased to see this invaluable tool back. Thank you VerticalBlank. Is this the new permanent home?
That is a clone and nothing to do with me. They did not even have the courtesy to inform me of it. Also, it is not using https.

When the official site is back up, which I hope will be very soon, I will announce it here.
 
Would love to see support for the Virpil VPC MongoosT-50CM3 Throttle. Is there anything I can do to help make that possible?
The Virpil kit looks really nice but it poses a problem for EDRefCard because Elite uses a very old (pre-2000) input API with a limit of 32 buttons per device. This means that Virpil users have to use the VPC software to map their hardware's physical buttons to that standard and EDRefCard has no way of knowing what that mapping is.

So, the only real options are (a) define some kind of standard VPC mapping and expect all Elite players to use it, or (b) augment EDRefCard to parse Virpil's (and ultimately every other hardware vendor's) undocumented config files.

As you can see neither option is very appealing, and this situation is likely to get worse as more of the high-end vendors go down this route. Option (b) in particular would get horribly complicated really fast as hardware vendors make undocumented changes to their config formats (see also this reddit post).

It's always been a problem with the Thrustmaster TARGET software: when I inherited the project, the original author jgm had decided not to bother supporting remapping via TARGET for exactly the above reasons, but at least in that case all Thrustmaster kit can be run as is without using TARGET at all.

I hope this helps explain the situtation and why it isn't as straightforward as may first appear.
 
We've also hit this obstacle with devices like the Thrustmaster 16.000M stick that have a hardware switch that flips all the buttons to mirror-image without changing the device ID.

That last, italicised, phrase is key. Absolutely all of the code in EDRefCard is built upon the assumption that the device ID by itself is sufficient to determine the mapping between the physical buttons and the entries such as <Primary Device="T16000MTHROTTLE" Key="Joy_4"> in Elite's bindings file.

Where is Joy_4 on the T16.000M diagram? Well, it depends on how the switch on the bottom of the stick is set.

So you can see how the base idea that EDRefCard was based upon, that the device ID is sufficient to print out a button map, is becoming increasingly less tenable.
 
Last edited:
That is a clone and nothing to do with me. They did not even have the courtesy to inform me of it. Also, it is not using https.

When the official site is back up, which I hope will be very soon, I will announce it here.
Ugh. That's not cool (cloning without consent). I'll remove the link from my post.
 
The Virpil kit looks really nice but it poses a problem for EDRefCard because Elite uses a very old (pre-2000) input API with a limit of 32 buttons per device. This means that Virpil users have to use the VPC software to map their hardware's physical buttons to that standard and EDRefCard has no way of knowing what that mapping is.

So, the only real options are (a) define some kind of standard VPC mapping and expect all Elite players to use it, or (b) augment EDRefCard to parse Virpil's (and ultimately every other hardware vendor's) undocumented config files.

As you can see neither option is very appealing, and this situation is likely to get worse as more of the high-end vendors go down this route. Option (b) in particular would get horribly complicated really fast as hardware vendors make undocumented changes to their config formats (see also this reddit post).

It's always been a problem with the Thrustmaster TARGET software: when I inherited the project, the original author jgm had decided not to bother supporting remapping via TARGET for exactly the above reasons, but at least in that case all Thrustmaster kit can be run as is without using TARGET at all.

I hope this helps explain the situtation and why it isn't as straightforward as may first appear.
OK, tricky. Virpil have recently removed the mapping tool. I think most users are now using vJoy plus Joystick Gremlin to do the mapping. Obviously there are other tools also. Not making it any easier. Would be great if Fdev upgraded their input API to cope with more than 32 buttons per device.

What if EDRefcard just handled the first 32 buttons which are unmapped? That would still be useful. Frankly I'd be happy to print that out and then hand write the other button assignments!
 
What if EDRefcard just handled the first 32 buttons which are unmapped?
I think you're missing the point that EDRefCard has no way of knowing what those are.

I'll reiterate: EDRefCard is based on the assumption that the game's bindings file and the device IDs contained in that, are sufficient to draw a ref card.

That assumption is no longer tenable with the newer high-end kit.
 
Just a progress update.

The VPS (Virtual Private Server) is back up in a vanilla state.
My snapshot was toast.
Please leave it alone until I announce more news. I am taking the opportunity to move it from Debian 9 to Ubuntu 20.04, which is in progress.

Credit where due: OVH are refunding the entire fees of the snapshot service from day one (because it didn't deliver the easy recovery that I paid for), plus they are compensating me with three years of free hosting on my current tariff.
 
Credit where due: OVH are refunding the entire fees of the snapshot service from day one (because it didn't deliver the easy recovery that I paid for), plus they are compensating me with three years of free hosting on my current tariff.
Thank you sir, i guess funding server hosting wont be an issue - but time can still money, let the community know if \when we can help out at all in any way.
Thanks again for perserverance.
 
Hmm, while Nginx is in general much nicer to work with than Apache, sadly it seems that adapting EDRefCard's very old-school "vanilla CGI with rewrite rules" style of coding from Apache to Nginx is non-trivial and probably not worth it. I think tomorrow I'll just spin it up under Apache. It's not like it's performance-critical.

In related news, I am working on adding support for the "on foot" bindings from Odyssey, so that all you alpha users can print out an on-foot ref card.
 
Hmm, while Nginx is in general much nicer to work with than Apache, sadly it seems that adapting EDRefCard's very old-school "vanilla CGI with rewrite rules" style of coding from Apache to Nginx is non-trivial and probably not worth it. I think tomorrow I'll just spin it up under Apache. It's not like it's performance-critical.

In related news, I am working on adding support for the "on foot" bindings from Odyssey, so that all you alpha users can print out an on-foot ref card.
Just wanted to say thanks for even considering bringing EDRrefCard back online and maintaining it. I know that I’m eagerly awaiting the nw launch seeing as I have new controllers I need mapped and your site is what I use. Kudos to you.
 
I got a Blackhog B-Explorer. Device is unsupported. Code I was given was "otvaun". I know the site's down; I'll try and resubmit when it comes back up.
 
Just a progress update.

The VPS (Virtual Private Server) is back up in a vanilla state.
My snapshot was toast.
Please leave it alone until I announce more news. I am taking the opportunity to move it from Debian 9 to Ubuntu 20.04, which is in progress.

Credit where due: OVH are refunding the entire fees of the snapshot service from day one (because it didn't deliver the easy recovery that I paid for), plus they are compensating me with three years of free hosting on my current tariff.
I don't know how much help this will be, but I recoverd the bindings.py python script from archive.org for you:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<title>Wayback Machine</title>
<script>
/*
@licstart The following is the entire license notice for the JavaScript code in this page.

Copyright (C) 2020 Internet Archive

The JavaScript code in this page is free software: you can
redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Affero
General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
any later version. The code is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU GPL for more details.

As additional permission under GNU AGPL version 3 section 7, you
may distribute non-source (e.g., minimized or compacted) forms of
that code without the copy of the GNU AGPL normally required by
section 4, provided you include this license notice and a URL
through which recipients can access the Corresponding Source.

@licend The above is the entire license notice for the JavaScript code in this page.
*/
</script>
<script type="text/javascript">
window.webComponentLoaderConfig = {
baseUrl: 'https://archive.org',
version: '29e56e87'
}
</script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/npm/jquery/dist/jquery.min.js?v1.12.4" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/npm/jquery-ui.min.js?v1.12.1" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/npm/bootstrap/dist/js/bootstrap.min.js?v3.0.0" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/components/npm/clipboard/dist/clipboard.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/regenerator-runtime-polyfill.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/ie-dom-node-remove-polyfill.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/polyfill.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/includes/analytics.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/components/npm/@webcomponents/webcomponentsjs/webcomponents-bundle.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/more-facets.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/ia-topnav.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/npm/react/umd/react.production.min.js?v16.7.0" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/npm/react-dom/umd/react-dom.production.min.js?v16.7.0" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/archive.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<script src="//archive.org/ext/build/js/areact.min.js?v=896fb722" type="text/javascript"></script>
<link href="//archive.org/ext//build/css/archive.min.css?v=896fb722" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
<meta property="mediatype" content="">
<meta property="primary_collection" content="">
<script src="/_static/js/raven.min.js" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
<script>Raven.config('https://5588e3adb3e545248e893d6f2fc41ba2@wwwb-sentry.us.archive.org/3').install();</script>
<script type="text/javascript">if('archive_analytics' in window){var v=archive_analytics.values;v.path='/web';v.service='wb';v.server_name='wwwb-app203.us.archive.org';v.server_ms=189;archive_analytics.send_pageview_on_load()}</script>
<link href="/_static/images/archive.ico" rel="shortcut icon">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/_static/css/styles.css?v=TN3GQxFf" />
<base target="_top">
<link href="/_static/css/web.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
<!-- include component js and css -->
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist/vendors~main.f5ea269b8f2231dc5d9c.chunk.css" />
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist/main.dfb5e80400b47fcc4c68.chunk.css" />
<script src="/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist/runtime.3538ddf62c7200f99154.js"></script>
<script src="/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist/vendors~main.f5ea269b8f2231dc5d9c.chunk.js"></script>
<script src="/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist/main.dfb5e80400b47fcc4c68.chunk.js"></script>
<script src="https://archive.org/web/carouFredSel/jquery.carouFredSel-6.2.1-packed.js?v6.2.1" type="text/javascript"></script>
<style>
html, body { margin:0; padding:0 }
#faux-header {
height: 50px;
width: 100%;
margin:0;
background-color:black;
}
#react-wayback-search {
max-width: 1170px;
margin: 0 auto;
padding: 10px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body class="navia">

<div class="ia-banners">
<div
class="ia-banner hidden new-lending-mechanism"
data-campaign="new-lending-mechanism">
<p><a href="http://blog.archive.org/2020/06/10/...ng-to-traditional-controlled-digital-lending/" rel="nofollow">See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive</a></p>
<form class="banner-close" action="" method="get" data-action="ia-banner-close">
<fieldset>
<button aria-label="Close Banner" type="submit"></button>
</fieldset>
</form>
</div>
</div>
<div id="topnav">
<ia-topnav
baseHost="https://archive.org"
mediaBaseHost="https://archive.org"
username=""
screenName=""
searchQuery=""
config="eyJ1cGxvYWRVUkwiOiJodHRwczpcL1wvYXJjaGl2ZS5vcmdcL2NyZWF0ZSIsImV2ZW50Q2F0ZWdvcnkiOiJUb3BOYXYiLCJ3YXliYWNrUGFnZXNBcmNoaXZlZCI6IjU0NCBiaWxsaW9uIn0="
menus="{"audio":{"heading":"Internet Archive Audio","iconLinks":[{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/etree","title":"Live Music Archive","url":"\/details\/etree"},{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/librivoxaudio","title":"Librivox Free Audio","url":"\/details\/librivoxaudio"}],"featuredLinks":[{"title":"All Audio","url":"\/details\/audio"},{"title":"This Just In","url":"\/search.php?query=mediatype:audio&sort=-publicdate"},{"title":"Grateful Dead","url":"\/details\/GratefulDead"},{"title":"Netlabels","url":"\/details\/netlabels"},{"title":"Old Time Radio","url":"\/details\/oldtimeradio"},{"title":"78 RPMs and Cylinder Recordings","url":"\/details\/78rpm"}],"links":[{"title":"Audio Books & Poetry","url":"\/details\/audio_bookspoetry"},{"title":"Computers, Technology and Science","url":"\/details\/audio_tech"},{"title":"Music, Arts & Culture","url":"\/details\/audio_music"},{"title":"News & Public Affairs","url":"\/details\/audio_news"},{"title":"Non-English Audio","url":"\/details\/audio_foreign"},{"title":"Spirituality & Religion","url":"\/details\/audio_religion"},{"title":"Podcasts","url":"\/details\/podcasts"},{"title":"Radio News Archive","url":"\/details\/radio"}]},"images":{"heading":"Images","iconLinks":[{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/metropolitanmuseumofart-gallery","title":"Metropolitan Museum","url":"\/details\/metropolitanmuseumofart-gallery"},{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/brooklynmuseum","title":"Brooklyn Museum","url":"\/details\/brooklynmuseum"}],"featuredLinks":[{"title":"All Images","url":"\/details\/image"},{"title":"This Just In","url":"\/search.php?query=mediatype:image&sort=-publicdate"},{"title":"Flickr Commons","url":"\/details\/flickrcommons"},{"title":"Occupy Wall Street Flickr","url":"\/details\/flickr-ows"},{"title":"Cover Art","url":"\/details\/coverartarchive"},{"title":"USGS Maps","url":"\/details\/maps_usgs"}],"links":[{"title":"NASA Images","url":"\/details\/nasa"},{"title":"Solar System Collection","url":"\/details\/solarsystemcollection"},{"title":"Ames Research Center","url":"\/details\/amesresearchcenterimagelibrary"}]},"more":[{"title":"About","url":"\/about\/"},{"title":"Blog","url":"https:\/\/blog.archive.org\/"},{"title":"Projects","url":"\/projects\/"},{"title":"Help","url":"\/about\/faqs.php"},{"title":"Donate","url":"\/donate?origin=wbwww-TopNavDonateButton"},{"title":"Contact","url":"\/about\/contact.php"},{"title":"Jobs","url":"\/about\/jobs.php"},{"title":"Volunteer","url":"\/about\/volunteerpositions.php"},{"title":"People","url":"\/about\/bios.php"}],"software":{"heading":"Software","iconLinks":[{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/internetarcade","title":"Internet Arcade","url":"\/details\/internetarcade"},{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/consolelivingroom","title":"Console Living Room","url":"\/details\/consolelivingroom"}],"featuredLinks":[{"title":"All Software","url":"\/details\/software"},{"title":"This Just In","url":"\/search.php?query=mediatype:software&sort=-publicdate"},{"title":"Old School Emulation","url":"\/details\/tosec"},{"title":"MS-DOS Games","url":"\/details\/softwarelibrary_msdos_games"},{"title":"Historical Software","url":"\/details\/historicalsoftware"},{"title":"Classic PC Games","url":"\/details\/classicpcgames"},{"title":"Software Library","url":"\/details\/softwarelibrary"}],"links":[{"title":"Kodi Archive and Support File","url":"\/details\/kodi_archive"},{"title":"Vintage Software","url":"\/details\/vintagesoftware"},{"title":"APK","url":"\/details\/apkarchive"},{"title":"MS-DOS","url":"\/details\/softwarelibrary_msdos"},{"title":"CD-ROM Software","url":"\/details\/cd-roms"},{"title":"CD-ROM Software Library","url":"\/details\/cdromsoftware"},{"title":"Software Sites","url":"\/details\/softwaresites"},{"title":"Tucows Software Library","url":"\/details\/tucows"},{"title":"Shareware CD-ROMs","url":"\/details\/cdbbsarchive"},{"title":"Software Capsules Compilation","url":"\/details\/softwarecapsules"},{"title":"CD-ROM Images","url":"\/details\/cdromimages"},{"title":"ZX Spectrum","url":"\/details\/softwarelibrary_zx_spectrum"},{"title":"DOOM Level CD","url":"\/details\/doom-cds"}]},"texts":{"heading":"Books","iconLinks":[{"title":"Books to Borrow","icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/inlibrary","url":"\/details\/inlibrary"},{"title":"Open Library","icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/images\/widgetOL.png","url":"https:\/\/openlibrary.org\/"}],"featuredLinks":[{"title":"All Books","url":"\/details\/books"},{"title":"All Texts","url":"\/details\/texts"},{"title":"This Just In","url":"\/search.php?query=mediatype:texts&sort=-publicdate"},{"title":"Smithsonian Libraries","url":"\/details\/smithsonian"},{"title":"FEDLINK (US)","url":"\/details\/fedlink"},{"title":"Genealogy","url":"\/details\/genealogy"},{"title":"Lincoln Collection","url":"\/details\/lincolncollection"}],"links":[{"title":"American Libraries","url":"\/details\/americana"},{"title":"Canadian Libraries","url":"\/details\/toronto"},{"title":"Universal Library","url":"\/details\/universallibrary"},{"title":"Project Gutenberg","url":"\/details\/gutenberg"},{"title":"Children's Library","url":"\/details\/iacl"},{"title":"Biodiversity Heritage Library","url":"\/details\/biodiversity"},{"title":"Books by Language","url":"\/details\/booksbylanguage"},{"title":"Books by Language","url":"\/details\/booksbylanguage"},{"title":"Additional Collections","url":"\/details\/additional_collections"}]},"web":{"mobileAppsLinks":[{"url":"https:\/\/apps.apple.com\/us\/app\/wayback-machine\/id1201888313","title":"Wayback Machine (iOS)","external":true},{"url":"https:\/\/play.google.com\/store\/apps\/details?id=com.archive.waybackmachine&hl=en_US","title":"Wayback Machine (Android)","external":true}],"browserExtensionsLinks":[{"url":"https:\/\/chrome.google.com\/webstore\/detail\/save-to-the-wayback-machi\/eebpioaailbjojmdbmlpomfgijnlcemk?hl=en","title":"Chrome","external":true},{"url":"https:\/\/addons.mozilla.org\/en-US\/firefox\/addon\/wayback-machine_new\/","title":"Firefox","external":true},{"url":"https:\/\/apps.apple.com\/us\/app\/wayback-machine\/id1472432422?mt=12","title":"Safari","external":true}],"archiveItLinks":[{"url":"https:\/\/www.archive-it.org\/explore","title":"Explore the Collections"},{"url":"https:\/\/www.archive-it.org\/blog\/learn-more\/","title":"Learn More"},{"url":"https:\/\/www.archive-it.org\/contact-us","title":"Build Collections"}]},"video":{"heading":"Video","iconLinks":[{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/tv","title":"TV News","url":"\/details\/tv"},{"icon":"https:\/\/archive.org\/services\/img\/911","title":"Understanding 9\/11","url":"\/details\/911"}],"featuredLinks":[{"title":"All Video","url":"\/details\/movies"},{"title":"This Just In","url":"\/search.php?query=mediatype:movies&sort=-publicdate"},{"title":"Prelinger Archives","url":"\/details\/prelinger"},{"title":"Democracy Now!","url":"\/details\/democracy_now_vid"},{"title":"Occupy Wall Street","url":"\/details\/occupywallstreet"},{"title":"TV NSA Clip Library","url":"\/details\/nsa"}],"links":[{"title":"Animation & Cartoons","url":"\/details\/animationandcartoons"},{"title":"Arts & Music","url":"\/details\/artsandmusicvideos"},{"title":"Computers & Technology","url":"\/details\/computersandtechvideos"},{"title":"Cultural & Academic Films","url":"\/details\/culturalandacademicfilms"},{"title":"Ephemeral Films","url":"\/details\/ephemera"},{"title":"Movies","url":"\/details\/moviesandfilms"},{"title":"News & Public Affairs","url":"\/details\/newsandpublicaffairs"},{"title":"Spirituality & Religion","url":"\/details\/spiritualityandreligion"},{"title":"Sports Videos","url":"\/details\/sports"},{"title":"Television","url":"\/details\/television"},{"title":"Videogame Videos","url":"\/details\/gamevideos"},{"title":"Vlogs","url":"\/details\/vlogs"},{"title":"Youth Media","url":"\/details\/youth_media"}]},"user":[],"signedOut":[{"url":"\/account\/signup","title":"Sign up for free","analyticsEvent":"AvatarMenu-Signup"},{"url":"\/account\/login","title":"Log in","analyticsEvent":"AvatarMenu-Login"}]}">
<noscript class='static-content'> <style scope="icon-hamburger-1">.icon-hamburger-1 svg.icon-hamburger {
display: block;
}

.icon-hamburger-1 .fill-color.icon-hamburger {
fill: #fff;
}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for login-button --><style scope="login-button-1">.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button {
display: block;
height: 4rem;
font-size: 1.6rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
text-decoration: none;
color: #ccc;
cursor: pointer;
}

.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button .fill-color.login-button {
fill: #999;
}

.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button:active .fill-color.login-button,.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button:focus .fill-color.login-button,.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button:hover .fill-color.login-button {
fill: #fff;
}

.login-button-1 .active.login-button {
border-radius: 1rem 1rem 0 0;
background: #333;
}

.login-button-1 .active.login-button .fill-color.login-button {
fill: #fff;
}

.login-button-1 span.login-button {
display: none;
font-size: 1.4rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
color: #999;
}

.login-button-1 span.login-button a.login-button {
color: inherit;
text-decoration: none;
}

.login-button-1 a.login-button:hover,.login-button-1 a.login-button:active,.login-button-1 a.login-button:focus {
color: #fff;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.login-button-1 .logged-out-toolbar.login-button {
transform: translateY(-.5rem);
}

.login-button-1 .active.login-button {
background: transparent;
}

.login-button-1 .dropdown-toggle.login-button {
display: inline-block;
vertical-align: middle;
}

.login-button-1 span.login-button {
display: inline;
vertical-align: middle;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for nav-search --><style scope="nav-search-1">.nav-search-1 input.nav-search:focus {
outline: none;
}

.nav-search-1 button.nav-search {
background: none;
color: inherit;
border: none;
font: inherit;
cursor: pointer;
}

.nav-search-1 button.nav-search:focus {
outline: none;
}

.nav-search-1 .search.nav-search {
padding-top: 0;
margin-right: .5rem;
}

.nav-search-1 .search.nav-search svg.nav-search {
position: relative;
top: -5px;
right: -3px;
fill:;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 5rem;
bottom: 0;
left: 5rem;
z-index: 3;
padding: 0.5rem 0.2rem;
border-radius: 1rem 1rem 0 0;
background: #333;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-inactive.nav-search {
display: none;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .highlight.nav-search,.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search.nav-search {
background: #fff;
border-radius: 0.5rem;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .highlight.nav-search {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
width: 100%;
margin: 0 .5rem;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search.nav-search {
height: 100%;
padding: 0;
margin-right: 0;
-ms-flex-item-align: center;
-ms-grid-row-align: center;
align-self: center;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search-field.nav-search {
width: 100%;
height: 100%;
box-sizing: border-box;
padding-left: 1rem;
border-radius: 0.5rem;
border: none;
font-size: 1.6rem;
text-align: center;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search-field.nav-search:focus {
outline: none;
}

@keyframes fade-in-nav-search-1 {
0% {
opacity: 0;
}

100% {
opacity: 1;
}

}

.nav-search-1 .fade-in.nav-search {
animation: fade-in-nav-search-1 .2s forwards;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.nav-search-1 .search.nav-search svg.nav-search {
display: inline;
width: 28px;
height: 28px;
vertical-align: -14px;
}

.nav-search-1 .search.nav-search path.nav-search {
fill: #333;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-inactive.nav-search,.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search {
display: block;
position: static;
padding: 1.2rem .2rem;
background: transparent;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .highlight.nav-search {
width: 13rem;
height: 2.8rem;
-webkit-box-orient: horizontal;
-webkit-box-direction: reverse;
-ms-flex-direction: row-reverse;
flex-direction: row-reverse;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search-field.nav-search {
width: calc(100% - 28px);
height: 100%;
padding-left: 0;
font-size: 1.4rem;
text-align: left;
}

.nav-search-1 .search-activated.nav-search .search.nav-search svg.nav-search {
width: 28px;
height: 28px;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for media-button --><style scope="media-button-1">.media-button-1 a.media-button {
display: inline-block;
text-decoration: none;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button {
display: inline-flex;
width: 100%;
padding: 0;
font-size: 1.6rem;
text-align: left;
background: transparent;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:focus {
outline: none;
}

.media-button-1 .label.media-button {
display: inline-block;
padding: 0;
font-weight: 400;
color: #fff;
text-align: left;
vertical-align: middle;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button > .icon.media-button {
display: inline-flex;
width: 42px;
height: 42px;
vertical-align: middle;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
-webkit-box-pack: center;
-ms-flex-pack: center;
justify-content: center;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.selected.media-button .icon.media-button {
background-color: #333;
border-radius: 1rem 0 0 1rem;
}

.media-button-1 .icon.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #999;
}

.media-button-1 .icon.active.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #fff;
}

.media-button-1 .donate.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #f00;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button {
width: auto;
height: 5rem;
color: #999;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:hover,.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:active,.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:focus {
color: #fff;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:hover .fill-color.media-button,.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:active .fill-color.media-button,.media-button-1 .menu-item.media-button:focus .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #fff;
}

.media-button-1 .label.media-button {
display: none;
}

.media-button-1 .label.media-button,.media-button-1 .web.media-button:after {
padding-right: 1rem;
font-size: 1.3rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
color: inherit;
}

.media-button-1 .web.media-button:after {
display: none;
content: "web";
}

.media-button-1 .donate.media-button,.media-button-1 .more.media-button {
display: none;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.selected.media-button {
background: #474747;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.selected.media-button .label.media-button,.media-button-1 .menu-item.selected.web.media-button:after {
color: #fff;
}

.media-button-1 .menu-item.selected.media-button .icon.media-button {
background: transparent;
}

.media-button-1 .web.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #ffcd27;
}

.media-button-1 .texts.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #faab3c;
}

.media-button-1 .video.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #f1644b;
}

.media-button-1 .audio.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #00adef;
}

.media-button-1 .software.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #9ecc4f;
}

.media-button-1 .images.selected.media-button .fill-color.media-button {
fill: #aa99c9;
}

}

@media (min-width: 1300px) {
.media-button-1 .label.media-button,.media-button-1 .web.media-button:after {
display: inline;
}

.media-button-1 .web.media-button .label.media-button {
display: none;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for media-menu --><style scope="media-menu-1">.media-menu-1 {
outline: none;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.media-menu {
position: absolute;
z-index: -1;
top: -100vh;
width: 100%;
background-color: #222;
margin: 0;
overflow: hidden;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.media-menu {
transition-property: top;
transition-duration: 0.2s;
transition-timing-function: ease;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.open.media-menu {
top: 100%;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.closed.media-menu {
top: -100vh;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.closed.media-menu {
transition-duration: 0.2s;
}

.media-menu-1 .menu-group.media-menu {
position: relative;
line-height: normal;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.media-menu-1 .media-menu.media-menu {
display: inline-block;
position: static;
width: auto;
height: 5rem;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.media-menu {
transition-property: none;
}

.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.open.media-menu,.media-menu-1 .media-menu.tx-slide.closed.media-menu {
top: 0;
}

.media-menu-1 .menu-group.media-menu {
font-size: 0;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for primary-nav --><style scope="primary-nav-1">.primary-nav-1 button.primary-nav:focus,.primary-nav-1 a.primary-nav:focus,.primary-nav-1 input.primary-nav:focus {
outline: none;
}

.primary-nav-1 nav.primary-nav {
position: relative;
display: -ms-grid;
display: grid;
height: 4rem;
grid-template-areas: "hamburger empty search user";
-ms-grid-columns: 4rem minmax(1rem, 100%) 4.3rem 5rem;
grid-template-columns: 4rem auto 4.3rem 5rem;
-ms-grid-rows: 100%;
grid-template-rows: 100%;
background: #222;
border-bottom: 1px solid #333;
}

.primary-nav-1 button.primary-nav {
background: none;
color: inherit;
border: none;
font: inherit;
cursor: pointer;
}

.primary-nav-1 .link-home.primary-nav {
position: absolute;
top: 50%;
left: 50%;
z-index: 2;
text-decoration: none;
-webkit-transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
-ms-transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
}

.primary-nav-1 media-menu.primary-nav {
grid-column-start: hamburger-start;
grid-column-end: user-end;
}

.primary-nav-1 .ia-logo.primary-nav {
display: block;
}

.primary-nav-1 .ia-wordmark.primary-nav {
display: none;
}

.primary-nav-1 .hamburger.primary-nav {
-ms-grid-row: 1;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
grid-area: hamburger;
padding: 0;
}

.primary-nav-1 .search-trigger.primary-nav {
-ms-grid-row: 1;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
grid-area: search;
position: relative;
padding: 0;
z-index: 1;
width: 100%;
text-align: right;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
}

.primary-nav-1 .search-trigger.primary-nav .fill-color.primary-nav {
fill: #999;
}

.primary-nav-1 .search-activated.primary-nav {
position: relative;
z-index: 3;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav {
display: none;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav span.primary-nav {
display: none;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-info.primary-nav {
-ms-grid-row: 1;
-ms-grid-column: 4;
grid-area: user;
-ms-grid-row-align: stretch;
align-self: stretch;
-ms-grid-column-align: end;
justify-self: end;
}

.primary-nav-1 .username.primary-nav {
display: none;
font-size: 1.3rem;
vertical-align: middle;
text-transform: uppercase;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.primary-nav {
height: 100%;
padding: .5rem 1rem;
color: #999;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.primary-nav:hover {
color: #fff;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.active.primary-nav {
border-radius: 1rem 1rem 0 0;
background: #333;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.primary-nav img.primary-nav {
display: block;
width: 30px;
height: 30px;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.primary-nav-1 {
;
}

.primary-nav-1 nav.primary-nav {
display: block;
z-index: 2;
height: 5rem;
padding-right: 1.5rem;
}

.primary-nav-1 .link-home.primary-nav {
position: static;
float: left;
margin-top: 1rem;
padding: 0 10px 0 13px;
-webkit-transform: translate(0, 0);
-ms-transform: translate(0, 0);
transform: translate(0, 0);
}

.primary-nav-1 .ia-logo.primary-nav,.primary-nav-1 .ia-wordmark.primary-nav {
display: inline-block;
vertical-align: middle;
}

.primary-nav-1 .ia-wordmark.primary-nav {
margin-left: 1rem;
}

.primary-nav-1 .hamburger.primary-nav,.primary-nav-1 .search-trigger.primary-nav {
display: none;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-info.primary-nav {
float: right;
padding-top: 1rem;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.primary-nav {
padding-top: 0;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.active.primary-nav {
background: transparent;
}

.primary-nav-1 .user-menu.primary-nav img.primary-nav {
display: inline-block;
vertical-align: middle;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav {
display: block;
float: right;
margin-top: 1rem;
font-size: 1.4rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
text-decoration: none;
color: #999;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:active,.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:focus,.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:hover {
color: #fff;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav svg.primary-nav {
width: 32px;
height: 32px;
vertical-align: middle;
fill: #999;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:hover svg.primary-nav,.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:focus svg.primary-nav,.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav:active svg.primary-nav {
fill: #fff;
}

.primary-nav-1 nav-search.primary-nav {
float: right;
margin-left: 1rem;
}

.primary-nav-1 login-button.primary-nav {
display: block;
margin-right: 1rem;
}

}

@media (min-width: 990px) {
.primary-nav-1 .username.primary-nav {
display: inline-block;
}

.primary-nav-1 .upload.primary-nav span.primary-nav {
display: inline;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for user-menu --><!-- Shady DOM styles for search-menu --><style scope="search-menu-1">.search-menu-1 {
;
}

.search-menu-1 button.search-menu:focus,.search-menu-1 input.search-menu:focus {
outline-color: #428bca;
outline-width: 0.16rem;
outline-style: auto;
}

.search-menu-1 .search-menu.search-menu {
position: absolute;
top: -800px;
right: 0;
left: 0;
z-index: 1;
padding: 0 4.5rem;
font-size: 1.6rem;
background-color: #333;
}

.search-menu-1 .tx-slide.search-menu {
overflow: hidden;
transition-property: top;
transition-duration: 0.2s;
transition-timing-function: ease;
}

.search-menu-1 .initial.search-menu,.search-menu-1 .closed.search-menu {
top: -800px;
}

.search-menu-1 .closed.search-menu {
transition-duration: 0.2s;
}

.search-menu-1 .open.search-menu {
top: 4rem;
}

.search-menu-1 label.search-menu,.search-menu-1 a.search-menu {
padding: 1rem;
display: block;
}

.search-menu-1 .advanced-search.search-menu {
text-decoration: none;
color: #428bca;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.search-menu-1 .search-menu.search-menu {
overflow: visible;
top: -400px;
right: 2rem;
left: auto;
z-index: 5;
padding: 1rem 2rem;
transition: opacity .2s ease-in-out;
font-size: 1.4rem;
color: #333;
border-radius: 2px;
background: #fff;
box-shadow: 0 1px 2px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, .15);
}

.search-menu-1 .search-menu.search-menu:after {
position: absolute;
right: 7px;
top: -7px;
width: 12px;
height: 7px;
box-sizing: border-box;
color: #fff;
content: "";
border-bottom: 7px solid currentColor;
border-left: 6px solid transparent;
border-right: 6px solid transparent;
}

.search-menu-1 .initial.search-menu,.search-menu-1 .closed.search-menu {
opacity: 0;
transition-duration: .2s;
}

.search-menu-1 .open.search-menu {
top: 5.1rem;
opacity: 1;
}

.search-menu-1 label.search-menu {
padding: 0;
}

.search-menu-1 label.search-menu + label.search-menu {
padding-top: 7px;
}

.search-menu-1 a.search-menu {
padding: 1rem 0 0 0;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for wayback-search --><!-- Shady DOM styles for more-slider --><!-- Shady DOM styles for media-subnav --><style scope="media-subnav-1">.media-subnav-1 a.media-subnav {
text-decoration: none;
color: #fff;
}

.media-subnav-1 img.media-subnav {
display: block;
width: 90px;
height: 90px;
margin: 0 auto 1rem auto;
border-radius: 45px;
}

.media-subnav-1 h3.media-subnav {
margin-top: 0;
font-size: 1.8rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 h4.media-subnav {
font-size: 1.6rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 ul.media-subnav {
padding: 0;
margin: 0;
list-style: none;
}

.media-subnav-1 li.media-subnav + li.media-subnav {
padding-top: 1.5rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 .icon-links.media-subnav {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-webkit-box-pack: space-evenly;
-ms-flex-pack: space-evenly;
justify-content: space-evenly;
text-align: center;
}

.media-subnav-1 .icon-links.media-subnav a.media-subnav {
display: inline-block;
width: 120px;
margin-bottom: 1.5rem;
overflow: hidden;
white-space: nowrap;
text-align: center;
text-overflow: ellipsis;
}

.media-subnav-1 .icon-links.media-subnav a.media-subnav + a.media-subnav {
margin-left: 2rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 .featured.media-subnav h4.media-subnav {
display: none;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.media-subnav-1 {
display: -ms-grid;
display: grid;
-ms-grid-columns: 40% 20% 40%;
grid-template-columns: 40% 20% 40%;
}

.media-subnav-1 .wayback-search.media-subnav {
-ms-grid-column: 1;
-ms-grid-column-span: 3;
grid-column: 1 / 4;
}

.media-subnav-1 h3.media-subnav {
display: none;
}

.media-subnav-1 h4.media-subnav {
margin: 0 0 1rem 0;
font-weight: 100;
}

.media-subnav-1 ul.media-subnav {
font-size: 1.3rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 li.media-subnav {
padding-bottom: .5rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 li.media-subnav + li.media-subnav {
padding-top: 0;
}

.media-subnav-1 li.media-subnav a.media-subnav {
display: block;
overflow: hidden;
white-space: nowrap;
text-overflow: ellipsis;
}

.media-subnav-1 .icon-links.media-subnav {
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .icon-links.media-subnav a.media-subnav {
padding-top: 3.5rem;
max-width: 160px;
}

.media-subnav-1 .links.media-subnav {
padding: 0 1.5rem;
}

.media-subnav-1 .featured.media-subnav {
-ms-grid-column: 2;
}

.media-subnav-1 .featured.media-subnav h4.media-subnav {
display: block;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav {
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav {
display: -ms-grid;
display: grid;
-ms-grid-columns: 50% 3rem 50%;
grid-template-columns: 50% 50%;
-ms-grid-rows: (auto)[7];
grid-template-rows: repeat(7, auto);
grid-column-gap: 3rem;
grid-auto-flow: column;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(1) {
-ms-grid-row: 1;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(2) {
-ms-grid-row: 2;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(3) {
-ms-grid-row: 3;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(4) {
-ms-grid-row: 4;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(5) {
-ms-grid-row: 5;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(6) {
-ms-grid-row: 6;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(7) {
-ms-grid-row: 7;
-ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(8) {
-ms-grid-row: 1;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(9) {
-ms-grid-row: 2;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(10) {
-ms-grid-row: 3;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(11) {
-ms-grid-row: 4;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(12) {
-ms-grid-row: 5;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(13) {
-ms-grid-row: 6;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.media-subnav-1 .top.media-subnav ul.media-subnav > *.media-subnav:nth-child(14) {
-ms-grid-row: 7;
-ms-grid-column: 3;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for media-slider --><style scope="media-slider-1">.media-slider-1 .overflow-clip.media-slider {
display: none;
position: absolute;
top: 4rem;
right: 0;
left: 4rem;
height: 368px;
overflow-x: hidden;
}

.media-slider-1 .information-menu.media-slider {
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 0;
left: 0;
padding: 0;
height: 368px;
overflow-x: hidden;
font-size: 1.4rem;
background: #333;
}

.media-slider-1 .open.media-slider {
display: block;
}

.media-slider-1 .info-box.media-slider {
padding: 1rem;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.media-slider-1 .overflow-clip.media-slider {
display: block;
top: 0;
left: 0;
height: auto;
overflow-x: visible;
transform: translate(0, -100%);
transition: transform .2s ease;
}

.media-slider-1 .information-menu.media-slider {
left: 0;
z-index: 1;
height: auto;
min-height: 21rem;
background: #474747;
transform: translate(0, -100%);
transition: transform .2s ease;
}

.media-slider-1 .overflow-clip.open.media-slider {
transform: translate(0, 8rem);
}

.media-slider-1 .information-menu.open.media-slider {
transform: translate(0, 0);
}

.media-slider-1 .info-box.media-slider {
max-width: 1000px;
padding: 1.5rem 0;
margin: 0 auto;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for desktop-subnav --><style scope="desktop-subnav-1">.desktop-subnav-1 ul.desktop-subnav {
position: relative;
z-index: 3;
padding: .8rem 0;
margin: 0;
font-size: 1.2rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
text-align: center;
background: #333;
}

.desktop-subnav-1 li.desktop-subnav {
display: inline-block;
padding: 0 15px;
}

.desktop-subnav-1 a.desktop-subnav {
text-decoration: none;
color: #aaa;
}

.desktop-subnav-1 a.desktop-subnav:hover,.desktop-subnav-1 a.desktop-subnav:active,.desktop-subnav-1 a.desktop-subnav:focus {
color: #fff;
}

.desktop-subnav-1 .donate.desktop-subnav svg.desktop-subnav {
width: 16px;
height: 16px;
vertical-align: -4px;
fill: #f00;
}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for signed-out-dropdown --><style scope="signed-out-dropdown-1">.signed-out-dropdown-1 {
;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 nav.signed-out-dropdown {
position: absolute;
top: -1500px;
right: 0;
z-index: 1;
overflow: hidden;
font-size: 1.6rem;
background-color: #333;
transition-property: top;
transition-duration: 0.2s;
transition-timing-function: ease;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .closed.signed-out-dropdown {
top: -1500px;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .closed.signed-out-dropdown {
transition-duration: 0.5s;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .open.signed-out-dropdown {
top: 4rem;
max-width: 100vw;
overflow: auto;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 h3.signed-out-dropdown {
padding: 0.6rem 2rem;
margin: 0;
font-size: inherit;
overflow: hidden;
text-overflow: ellipsis;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 ul.signed-out-dropdown {
padding: 0.4rem 0 0.7rem 0;
margin: 0;
list-style: none;

max-height: calc(100vh - 7.2rem + 1px);
overflow: auto;
box-sizing: border-box;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .divider.signed-out-dropdown {
margin: .5rem 0;
border-bottom: 1px solid #666;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 a.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .info-item.signed-out-dropdown {
display: block;
color: #fff;
text-decoration: none;
padding: 1rem 2rem;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .info-item.signed-out-dropdown {
font-size: .8em;
color: #999;
}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.signed-out-dropdown-1 nav.signed-out-dropdown {
overflow: visible;
top: calc(100% + 7px);
left: auto;
z-index: 5;
transition: opacity .2s ease-in-out;
font-size: 1.4rem;
border-radius: 2px;
background: #fff;
box-shadow: 0 1px 2px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, .15);
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 nav.signed-out-dropdown:after {
position: absolute;
right: 7px;
top: -7px;
width: 12px;
height: 7px;
box-sizing: border-box;
color: #fff;
content: "";
border-bottom: 7px solid currentColor;
border-left: 6px solid transparent;
border-right: 6px solid transparent;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 h3.signed-out-dropdown {
display: none;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 ul.signed-out-dropdown {
max-height: calc(100vh - 8.5rem + 1px);
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .divider.signed-out-dropdown {
border-bottom-color: #666;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 a.signed-out-dropdown {
padding: .5rem 2rem;
color: #333;
transition: background .1s ease-out, color .1s ease-out;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .info-item.signed-out-dropdown {
padding: .5rem 2rem;
font-size: .8em;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 a.signed-out-dropdown:hover,.signed-out-dropdown-1 a.signed-out-dropdown:active,.signed-out-dropdown-1 a.signed-out-dropdown:focus {
color: #fff;
background: #428bca;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .closed.signed-out-dropdown {
opacity: 0;
transition-duration: .2s;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .open.signed-out-dropdown {
top: 5.1rem;
opacity: 1;
overflow: visible;
}

}

@media (min-width: 890px) {
.signed-out-dropdown-1 .initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .closed.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .open.signed-out-dropdown {
right: 33.7rem;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.closed.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.open.signed-out-dropdown {
right: 18.3rem;
}

}

@media (min-width: 990px) {
.signed-out-dropdown-1 .initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .closed.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .open.signed-out-dropdown {
right: 39.7rem;
}

.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.initial.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.closed.signed-out-dropdown,.signed-out-dropdown-1 .search-hidden.open.signed-out-dropdown {
right: 23.5rem;
}

}</style><!-- Shady DOM styles for ia-topnav --><style scope="ia-topnav-1">.ia-topnav-1 {
;

color: #fff;
font-size: 2rem;
font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;
}

.ia-topnav-1 #close-layer.ia-topnav {
display: none;
position: fixed;
top: 0;
right: 0;
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
z-index: 0;
}

.ia-topnav-1 #close-layer.visible.ia-topnav {
display: block;
}

.ia-topnav-1 .topnav.ia-topnav {
position: relative;
z-index: 3;
}

@media (max-width: 889px) {
.ia-topnav-1 desktop-subnav.ia-topnav {
display: none;
}

}</style><style>body {transition: opacity ease-in 0.2s; }
body[unresolved] {opacity: 0; display: block; overflow: hidden; position: relative; }
</style>
<div class="topnav style-scope ia-topnav">
<primary-nav class="style-scope ia-topnav x-scope primary-nav-1"><!---->
<nav class="style-scope primary-nav">
<a class="link-home style-scope primary-nav" href="https://archive.org" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavHome"><!---->
<svg class="ia-logo style-scope primary-nav" width="27" height="30" viewBox="0 0 27 30" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="logoTitleID logoDescID">
<title id="logoTitleID" class="style-scope primary-nav">Internet Archive logo</title>
<desc id="logoDescID" class="style-scope primary-nav">A line drawing of the Internet Archive headquarters building façade.</desc>
<g stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" class="style-scope primary-nav">
<mask id="mask-2" fill="white" class="style-scope primary-nav">
<path d="M26.6666667,28.6046512 L26.6666667,30 L0,30 L0.000283687943,28.6046512 L26.6666667,28.6046512 Z M25.6140351,26.5116279 L25.6140351,28.255814 L1.05263158,28.255814 L1.05263158,26.5116279 L25.6140351,26.5116279 Z M3.62469203,7.6744186 L3.91746909,7.82153285 L4.0639977,10.1739544 L4.21052632,13.9963932 L4.21052632,17.6725617 L4.0639977,22.255044 L4.03962296,25.3421929 L3.62469203,25.4651163 L2.16024641,25.4651163 L1.72094074,25.3421929 L1.55031755,22.255044 L1.40350877,17.6970339 L1.40350877,14.0211467 L1.55031755,10.1739544 L1.68423854,7.80887484 L1.98962322,7.6744186 L3.62469203,7.6744186 Z M24.6774869,7.6744186 L24.9706026,7.82153285 L25.1168803,10.1739544 L25.2631579,13.9963932 L25.2631579,17.6725617 L25.1168803,22.255044 L25.0927809,25.3421929 L24.6774869,25.4651163 L23.2130291,25.4651163 L22.7736357,25.3421929 L22.602418,22.255044 L22.4561404,17.6970339 L22.4561404,14.0211467 L22.602418,10.1739544 L22.7369262,7.80887484 L23.0420916,7.6744186 L24.6774869,7.6744186 Z M9.94042303,7.6744186 L10.2332293,7.82153285 L10.3797725,10.1739544 L10.5263158,13.9963932 L10.5263158,17.6725617 L10.3797725,22.255044 L10.3556756,25.3421929 L9.94042303,25.4651163 L8.47583122,25.4651163 L8.0362015,25.3421929 L7.86556129,22.255044 L7.71929825,17.6970339 L7.71929825,14.0211467 L7.86556129,10.1739544 L8.00005604,7.80887484 L8.30491081,7.6744186 L9.94042303,7.6744186 Z M18.0105985,7.6744186 L18.3034047,7.82153285 L18.449948,10.1739544 L18.5964912,13.9963932 L18.5964912,17.6725617 L18.449948,22.255044 L18.425851,25.3421929 L18.0105985,25.4651163 L16.5460067,25.4651163 L16.1066571,25.3421929 L15.9357367,22.255044 L15.7894737,17.6970339 L15.7894737,14.0211467 L15.9357367,10.1739544 L16.0702315,7.80887484 L16.3753664,7.6744186 L18.0105985,7.6744186 Z M25.6140351,4.53488372 L25.6140351,6.97674419 L1.05263158,6.97674419 L1.05263158,4.53488372 L25.6140351,4.53488372 Z M13.0806755,0 L25.9649123,2.93331338 L25.4484139,3.8372093 L0.771925248,3.8372093 L0,3.1041615 L13.0806755,0 Z" id="path-1" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path>
</mask>
<use fill="#FFFFFF" xlink:href="#path-1" class="style-scope primary-nav"></use>
<g mask="url(#mask-2)" fill="#FFFFFF" class="style-scope primary-nav">
<path d="M0,0 L26.6666667,0 L26.6666667,30 L0,30 L0,0 Z" id="swatch" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path>
</g>
</g>
</svg>
<!---->
<svg class="ia-wordmark style-scope primary-nav" height="14" viewBox="0 0 183 14" width="183" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"><g fill="#fff" fill-rule="evenodd" class="style-scope primary-nav"><g transform="translate(107.24177)" class="style-scope primary-nav"><path d="m3.46567087 2.73592273c.09358964-.31350476.26547063-.95793121.26547063-1.08718317 0-.73655285-.57818604-.75488647-1.20271694-.86488814v-.40471447h2.93682509l3.81107838 12.38893815h-1.62387035l-1.17212033-3.82897484h-3.98340931l-1.17167038 3.82897484h-.96784292zm-.7032722 5.33783106h3.4520181l-1.78045302-5.37541496z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m13.7607138 2.88304997c0-1.82281935-.0319465-1.82281935-1.4843858-2.09919855v-.40471447h3.8425749c1.1721204 0 4.4050127 0 4.4050127 3.2954667 0 2.09828187-1.1554722 2.79816749-2.3896856 3.03696279l2.874282 6.05650866h-1.7957513l-2.7649442-5.72512863h-.9687428v5.72512863h-1.7183599zm1.7183599 3.29500836h.8909015c1.0146377 0 2.4364804-.33092169 2.4364804-2.39299467 0-1.98873853-.9687428-2.54103858-2.2812476-2.54103858-1.0461343 0-1.0461343.33138003-1.0461343 1.6573585z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m31.6158204 12.2524422c-.5304913.2768376-1.3903462.6998857-2.9989182.6998857-3.389925 0-4.6083902-2.4113283-4.6083902-6.55334954 0-3.35000921.8742533-6.07530059 4.3582178-6.07530059 1.3903462 0 2.4058839.27592086 3.1240044.55230005l.0940396 3.07500503h-.4530999c-.062543-.9395976-.921948-2.743625-2.6088113-2.743625-2.296096 0-2.6713545 2.88983555-2.6713545 5.19162051 0 2.90816916.8598549 5.52254214 3.0304147 5.52254214 1.4843858 0 2.2497511-.5523 2.7338976-.9386809z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m36.1784975 2.80971552c0-1.45568877-.0935896-1.62114962-1.5626771-1.80448573v-.40563116l3.2805871-.42258975v5.70633665h4.2484299v-5.50420858h1.7183599v12.38893815h-1.7183599v-6.01984144h-4.2484299v6.01984144h-1.71791z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m46.8631973 12.3083598c1.1086774 0 1.3273532-.2759209 1.3273532-1.711901v-7.91645358c0-1.43598014-.2186758-1.71144266-1.3273532-1.71144266v-.46109033h4.3735162v.46109033c-1.093829 0-1.3273532.27546252-1.3273532 1.71144266v7.91645358c0 1.4359801.2335242 1.711901 1.3273532 1.711901v.4597153h-4.3735162z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m56.1269544 2.73592273c-.4998947-1.67569211-.6407291-1.67569211-1.8902409-1.95207131v-.40471447h3.0304147l3.0614614 10.08806985h.0310465l2.9840699-10.08806985h1.0146377l-3.8106284 12.38893815h-1.3588497z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m68.8422796 2.88304997c0-1.82281935-.0467948-1.82281935-1.4839359-2.09919855v-.40471447h7.4826722l.0467949 2.7243747h-.4378016c0-1.47264736-.6555775-1.85948657-1.6868634-1.85948657h-1.2184652c-.7806636 0-.9835912.07333445-.9835912.95747287v3.66351396h1.8902409c1.0767309 0 1.1865187-.80942895 1.2805583-1.41672984h.4369017v3.86518369h-.4369017c0-.9941401-.3437619-1.58356571-1.2805583-1.58356571h-1.8902409v4.10535405c0 1.0308073.2029276 1.0679328.9835912 1.0679328h1.7345581c.8895516 0 1.311155-.3685056 1.4051946-1.8040274h.4378015l-.0476947 2.6689156h-6.2322605z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path></g><g transform="translate(.24177 .277385)" class="style-scope primary-nav"><path d="m1.57302598 10.3699491v-8.03470531c0-1.45706379-.25962128-1.73802639-1.57302598-1.73802639v-.46659042h5.18252665v.46659042c-1.29540668 0-1.57302597.2809626-1.57302597 1.73802639v8.03470531c0 1.4575222.27761929 1.7366514 1.57302597 1.7366514v.4675071h-5.18252665v-.4675071c1.3134047 0 1.57302598-.2791292 1.57302598-1.7366514z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m10.0331719 2.39116131c0-1.73756805-.25872136-1.66240024-1.85064525-1.98003007v-.41113124h3.90556795l5.830455 10.1641543h.0368959v-10.1641543h1.1662709v12.5741076h-1.7773033l-6.1076243-10.63028642h-.0373459v10.63028642h-1.166271z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m25.9161467.87818h-1.2774087c-1.4618883 0-1.8875412.46704876-1.9991288 1.83198615h-.5178928l.0737919-2.71016615h9.4768516l.0742417 2.76562533h-.5183426c0-1.43873018-.5925845-1.88744533-2.0175768-1.88744533h-1.2580608v11.6959276h-2.0364747z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m36.505907 2.54103859c0-1.84986143-.0562438-1.84986143-1.7593054-2.12990735v-.41113124h8.8658192l.0557938 2.76562533h-.5183426c0-1.49510604-.777064-1.88744533-1.9982289-1.88744533h-1.4443403c-.9255476 0-1.1662709.07516781-1.1662709.97213976v3.71805646h2.2398522c1.2769587 0 1.4060944-.82272082 1.5176821-1.43964686h.5187926v3.92430959h-.5187926c0-1.00880698-.406755-1.60648273-1.5176821-1.60648273h-2.2398522v4.16631328c0 1.0463909.2407233 1.0830581 1.1662709 1.0830581h2.0544728c1.0555832 0 1.554578-.3735473 1.6652657-1.83061113h.5192426l-.0557938 2.70879113h-7.3845831z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m48.7037894 2.54103859c0-1.84986143-.0368959-1.84986143-1.7575055-2.12990735v-.41113124h4.5525963c1.3885464 0 5.2194226 0 5.2194226 3.34450912 0 2.13036568-1.3687486 2.8403348-2.8315368 3.08325515l3.4056733 6.14634333h-2.1287145l-3.2756376-5.81083823h-1.1478231v5.81083823h-2.0364747zm2.0364747 3.34405077h1.0555833c1.202267 0 2.8873305-.33550509 2.8873305-2.42782853 0-2.01898899-1.147823-2.57908083-2.7028509-2.57908083-1.2400629 0-1.2400629.33596344-1.2400629 1.68256722z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m62.1435345 2.39116131c0-1.73756805-.2596213-1.66240024-1.8510952-1.98003007v-.41113124h3.905118l5.830005 10.1641543h.0373458v-10.1641543h1.166271v12.5741076h-1.7764035l-6.1085242-10.63028642h-.0368959v10.63028642h-1.165821z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m75.9895846 2.54103859c0-1.84986143-.0553439-1.84986143-1.7584055-2.12990735v-.41113124h8.8658192l.0557938 2.76562533h-.5183426c0-1.49510604-.777964-1.88744533-1.9991289-1.88744533h-1.4438902c-.9250977 0-1.1658211.07516781-1.1658211.97213976v3.71805646h2.2394023c1.2774087 0 1.4060944-.82272082 1.5176821-1.43964686h.5187926v3.92430959h-.5187926c0-1.00880698-.406755-1.60648273-1.5176821-1.60648273h-2.2394023v4.16631328c0 1.0463909.2407234 1.0830581 1.1658211 1.0830581h2.0544727c1.0555832 0 1.5550279-.3735473 1.6661657-1.83061113h.5183426l-.0557938 2.70879113h-7.385033z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path><path d="m90.2243917.87818h-1.2765088c-1.4623382 0-1.8879911.46704876-1.9995788 1.83198615h-.5178927l.0742418-2.71016615h9.4759517l.0742418 2.76562533h-.5178928c0-1.43873018-.5921344-1.88744533-2.0180267-1.88744533h-1.2585108v11.6959276h-2.0360247z" class="style-scope primary-nav"></path></g></g></svg>
<!----></a>

<button class="search-trigger style-scope primary-nav" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavSearchOpen">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="searchTitleID searchDescID" class="style-scope primary-nav">
<title id="searchTitleID" class="style-scope primary-nav">Search icon</title>
<desc id="searchDescID" class="style-scope primary-nav">An illustration of a magnifying glass.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope primary-nav" d="m32.4526364 29.8875889-8.1719472-7.9751279c1.1046135-1.4876138 1.7652549-3.3102407 1.7652549-5.2846451 0-.101185-.0142895-.1981539-.030573-.2944743.0166158-.0976175.0309053-.196208.0309053-.2990145 0-4.9814145-4.152935-9.0343271-9.2572866-9.0343271-.0907218 0-.1781206.01394537-.2655193.02594487-.0880633-.0119995-.1747974-.02594487-.2655193-.02594487-5.1046839 0-9.25761889 4.0529126-9.25761889 9.0343271 0 .1011849.01395722.1981539.03057294.2947985-.01694804.0976176-.03090525.1958838-.03090525.2986903 0 4.9814145 4.1526027 9.0346514 9.2572866 9.0346514.0907218 0 .1777882-.0139454.2658516-.0262692.0873987.0123238.1741328.0262692.265187.0262692 1.7306942 0 3.3467399-.4747911 4.7338208-1.2852439l8.2882574 8.0886366c.3652137.3564177.843082.53414 1.3212826.53414.4782007 0 .9567336-.1780467 1.3212827-.53414.7294304-.7118622.7294304-1.8660845-.0003323-2.5782711zm-15.9526364-7.8875889c-.0832667-.0118703-.1652765-.0253024-.2513711-.0253024-2.8781993 0-5.2197212-2.3278242-5.2197212-5.1891862 0-.0974612-.013197-.1908615-.0289077-.2836371.0160249-.0940251.0292219-.1889874.0292219-.2880105 0-2.861362 2.3418361-5.1891861 5.2200354-5.1891861.0854662 0 .1677902-.0131198.2510569-.0246777.0826383.0115579.1649623.0246777.2510569.0246777 2.8781993 0 5.2197212 2.3278241 5.2197212 5.1891861 0 .0974612.0135112.1908616.0289077.2839496-.0157107.0940251-.0295361.1886749-.0295361.287698 0 2.861362-2.3415219 5.1891862-5.2197212 5.1891862-.0860946 0-.1684187.0134321-.2507427.0253024z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</button>
<nav-search class="style-scope primary-nav x-scope nav-search-1"><!----><div class="search-activated fade-in search-inactive style-scope nav-search">
<form id="nav-search" class="highlight style-scope nav-search" method="get" action="https://archive.org/search.php" data-event-submit-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavSearchSubmit">
<input type="text" name="query" class="search-field style-scope nav-search" placeholder="Search" autocomplete="off">
<input type="hidden" name="sin" class="style-scope nav-search" value="">
<button type="submit" class="search style-scope nav-search" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavSearchClose">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="searchTitleID searchDescID" class="style-scope nav-search">
<title id="searchTitleID" class="style-scope nav-search">Search icon</title>
<desc id="searchDescID" class="style-scope nav-search">An illustration of a magnifying glass.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope nav-search" d="m32.4526364 29.8875889-8.1719472-7.9751279c1.1046135-1.4876138 1.7652549-3.3102407 1.7652549-5.2846451 0-.101185-.0142895-.1981539-.030573-.2944743.0166158-.0976175.0309053-.196208.0309053-.2990145 0-4.9814145-4.152935-9.0343271-9.2572866-9.0343271-.0907218 0-.1781206.01394537-.2655193.02594487-.0880633-.0119995-.1747974-.02594487-.2655193-.02594487-5.1046839 0-9.25761889 4.0529126-9.25761889 9.0343271 0 .1011849.01395722.1981539.03057294.2947985-.01694804.0976176-.03090525.1958838-.03090525.2986903 0 4.9814145 4.1526027 9.0346514 9.2572866 9.0346514.0907218 0 .1777882-.0139454.2658516-.0262692.0873987.0123238.1741328.0262692.265187.0262692 1.7306942 0 3.3467399-.4747911 4.7338208-1.2852439l8.2882574 8.0886366c.3652137.3564177.843082.53414 1.3212826.53414.4782007 0 .9567336-.1780467 1.3212827-.53414.7294304-.7118622.7294304-1.8660845-.0003323-2.5782711zm-15.9526364-7.8875889c-.0832667-.0118703-.1652765-.0253024-.2513711-.0253024-2.8781993 0-5.2197212-2.3278242-5.2197212-5.1891862 0-.0974612-.013197-.1908615-.0289077-.2836371.0160249-.0940251.0292219-.1889874.0292219-.2880105 0-2.861362 2.3418361-5.1891861 5.2200354-5.1891861.0854662 0 .1677902-.0131198.2510569-.0246777.0826383.0115579.1649623.0246777.2510569.0246777 2.8781993 0 5.2197212 2.3278241 5.2197212 5.1891861 0 .0974612.0135112.1908616.0289077.2839496-.0157107.0940251-.0295361.1886749-.0295361.287698 0 2.861362-2.3415219 5.1891862-5.2197212 5.1891862-.0860946 0-.1684187.0134321-.2507427.0253024z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</button>
</form>
</div><!----></nav-search>

<a class="upload style-scope primary-nav" href="https://archive.org/create/">

<svg width="40" height="41" viewBox="0 0 40 41" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="uploadTitleID uploadDescID" class="style-scope primary-nav">
<title id="uploadTitleID" class="style-scope primary-nav">Upload icon</title>
<desc id="uploadDescID" class="style-scope primary-nav">An illustration of a horizontal line over an up pointing arrow.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope primary-nav" d="m20 12.8 8 10.4h-4.8v8.8h-6.4v-8.8h-4.8zm12-4.8v3.2h-24v-3.2z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

<span class="style-scope primary-nav">Upload</span>
</a>
<div class="user-info style-scope primary-nav">

<login-button class="style-scope primary-nav x-scope login-button-1"><!---->
<div class="logged-out-toolbar style-scope login-button">
<a class="dropdown-toggle style-scope login-button" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavLoginIcon">

<svg width="40" height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="userTitleID userDescID" class="style-scope login-button">
<title id="userTitleID" class="style-scope login-button">User icon</title>
<desc id="userDescID" class="style-scope login-button">An illustration of a person's head and chest.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope login-button" d="m20.7130435 18.0434783c-3.5658385 0-6.4565218-2.9198821-6.4565218-6.5217392 0-3.60185703 2.8906833-6.5217391 6.4565218-6.5217391s6.4565217 2.91988207 6.4565217 6.5217391c0 3.6018571-2.8906832 6.5217392-6.4565217 6.5217392zm-12.9130435 16.9565217c0-7.9240855 5.7813665-14.3478261 12.9130435-14.3478261s12.9130435 6.4237406 12.9130435 14.3478261z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</a>
<span class="style-scope login-button">
<a class="style-scope login-button" href="https://archive.org/account/signup">Sign up</a>
|
<a class="style-scope login-button" href="https://archive.org/account/login">Log in</a>
</span>
</div>
<!----></login-button>

</div>
<media-menu class="style-scope primary-nav x-scope media-menu-1" tabindex="-1"><!---->
<nav class="media-menu tx-slide closed style-scope media-menu" aria-hidden="true" aria-expanded="false">
<div class="menu-group style-scope media-menu">
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="web"><!---->
<a class="menu-item web style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/web/" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuWeb">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="webTitleID webDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="webTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Web icon</title>
<desc id="webDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of a computer application window</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m8 28.7585405v-8.1608108-9.3577297h24v9.3577297 8.1608108zm14.2702703-15.8863783h-12.43243246v2.6114594h12.43243246zm7.7837838 14.0365946v-7.0727027-1.8497838h-20.21621626v1.8497838 7.0727027zm-3.7837838-14.0365946h-2.7027027v2.6114594h2.7027027zm4 0h-2.7027027v2.6114594h2.7027027z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Wayback Machine<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="texts"><!---->
<a class="menu-item texts style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/details/texts" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuTexts">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="textsTitleID textsDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="textsTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Texts icon</title>
<desc id="textsDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of an open book.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m10.3323235 11.0007023h6.9060825c.8851083 0 1.5847122.3064258 2.0988114.9192774v14.4324451h-.6460032c-.1435563-.120323-.3528315-.2434552-.6278257-.3693964-.2749942-.1259413-.5201585-.2191097-.7354929-.2795053l-.3048241-.1081503h-5.7042647c-.3108832 0-.5621067-.0601615-.7536705-.1804846-.0717781-.0599274-.1256117-.1439663-.1615008-.2521166-.0358891-.1081502-.0598928-.2043619-.0720112-.2886348v-13.8741368zm19.1752505 0v13.603761c-.0717781.3361555-.2211606.5943584-.4481473.7746089-.0717781.0599274-.1733862.1079162-.304824.1439663-.1314379.0360501-.2451643.0601615-.3411793.0723343h-5.5965975c-.9568865.2640552-1.5068748.5164059-1.649965.757052h-.6634817v-14.4324451c.5140992-.6128516 1.2076439-.9192774 2.0806339-.9192774h6.92426zm1.3814961.6489017-.1796783 15.2976474c-.0955489 0-1.0342578.0119386-2.8161268.035816-1.7818691.0238773-3.3006293.0898911-4.5562806.1980414-1.2556514.1081503-1.9613144.2884008-2.1169891.5407514-.0955488.1924233-.5439291.273419-1.345141.2429871-.8012118-.0304319-1.3155441-.1776755-1.5429969-.4417308-.334654-.3843783-3.4558378-.5765674-9.36355164-.5765674v-15.3875385l-.96830576.3960828v16.2702977c6.4096947-.2041278 9.7760429-.0840388 10.0990445.3602669.2391051.276228.9864833.414342 2.2421347.414342.1915638 0 .4187835-.0210682.6816593-.0632047s.4810068-.0870821.6543929-.1348367c.1733862-.0477547.2719646-.0838048.2957353-.1081503.0838965-.1563732.9599161-.2675666 2.6280587-.3335805 1.6681426-.0660138 3.3213703-.0931684 4.9596831-.0814638l2.4392915.0182591v-16.2344816z"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Books<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="video"><!---->
<a class="menu-item video style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/details/movies" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuVideo">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="videoTitleID videoDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="videoTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Video icon</title>
<desc id="videoDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of two cells of a film strip.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m31.0117647 12.0677966c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711864-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711864-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711865-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.3898305c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711864-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711865-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.2711865-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.2823529-.6779661.7058823-.6779661h1.2705883c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm-4.0941176-10.440678c0 .5423729-.4235295.9491525-.9882353.9491525h-11.5764706c-.5647059 0-.9882353-.4067796-.9882353-.9491525v-6.9152542c0-.5423729.4235294-.9491526.9882353-.9491526h11.5764706c.5647058 0 .9882353.4067797.9882353.9491526zm-.1411765 11.2542373c0 .5423729-.4235294.9491525-.9882353.9491525h-11.5764706c-.5647059 0-.9882353-.4067796-.9882353-.9491525v-6.9152542c0-.5423729.4235294-.9491526.9882353-.9491526h11.5764706c.5647059 0 .9882353.4067797.9882353.9491526zm-14.9647059-17.220339c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711864-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711864-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711865-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.3898305c0 .4067797-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711864-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711865-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm0 3.2542373c0 .4067796-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.2711865-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661zm20.0470588-20.4745763h-.8470588v.27118644.6779661c0 .40677966-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.2705883c-.4235294 0-.7058823-.27118644-.7058823-.6779661v-.6779661-.27118644h-16.5176471v.27118644.6779661c0 .40677966-.2823529.6779661-.7058823.6779661h-1.27058828c-.42352941 0-.70588236-.27118644-.70588236-.6779661v-.6779661-.27118644h-1.12941176v24h1.12941176v-.2711864-.6779661c0-.4067797.28235295-.6779661.70588236-.6779661h1.27058828c.4235294 0 .7058823.2711864.7058823.6779661v.6779661.2711864h16.6588235v-.2711864-.6779661c0-.4067797.282353-.6779661.7058824-.6779661h1.2705882c.4235294 0 .7058824.2711864.7058824.6779661v.6779661.2711864h.8470588v-24z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Video<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="audio"><!---->
<a class="menu-item audio style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/details/audio" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuAudio">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg width="40px" height="40px" viewBox="0 0 40 40" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="audioTitleID audioDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="audioTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Audio icon</title>
<desc id="audioDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of an audio speaker.</desc>
<g stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" class="style-scope media-button">
<g transform="translate(10, 8)" class="fill-color style-scope media-button">
<path d="M19.4264564,11.8585048 L19.4264564,20.7200433 C19.4264564,22.3657576 18.8838179,23.2519114 16.8489237,23.2519114 C12.2364969,23.125318 7.75972977,23.125318 3.14730298,23.2519114 C1.24806842,23.2519114 0.569770368,22.492351 0.569770368,20.7200433 L0.569770368,2.74377955 C0.569770368,1.09806526 1.11240881,0.211911416 3.14730298,0.211911416 C7.75972977,0.338504822 12.2364969,0.338504822 16.8489237,0.211911416 C18.7481583,0.211911416 19.4264564,0.971471855 19.4264564,2.74377955 C19.2907967,5.78202131 19.4264564,8.82026306 19.4264564,11.8585048 L19.4264564,11.8585048 Z M10.0659432,2.74377955 C8.16670861,2.74377955 6.67445288,4.13630702 6.67445288,5.90861471 C6.67445288,7.6809224 8.16670861,9.07344988 10.0659432,9.07344988 C11.9651777,9.07344988 13.4574335,7.6809224 13.4574335,5.90861471 C13.4574335,4.13630702 11.8295181,2.74377955 10.0659432,2.74377955 L10.0659432,2.74377955 Z M10.0659432,11.4787246 C7.21709133,11.4787246 5.04653754,13.6308125 5.04653754,16.1626806 C5.04653754,18.8211422 7.35275094,20.8466367 10.0659432,20.8466367 C12.914795,20.8466367 15.0853488,18.6945488 15.0853488,16.1626806 C15.0853488,13.6308125 12.7791354,11.4787246 10.0659432,11.4787246 L10.0659432,11.4787246 Z" class="style-scope media-button"></path>
<ellipse cx="10.2016028" cy="16.5690777" rx="1.35659611" ry="1.34075134" class="style-scope media-button"></ellipse>
</g>
</g>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Audio<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="software"><!---->
<a class="menu-item software style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/details/software" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuSoftware">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg width="40" height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="softwareTitleID softwareDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="softwareTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Software icon</title>
<desc id="softwareDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of a 3.5" floppy disk.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m32 30.6900373v-21.44521088c0-.82988428-.4156786-1.24482642-1.2470357-1.24482642h-21.50592858c-.83135715 0-1.24703572.4221795-1.24703572 1.26653851v21.44521089c0 .8588337.41567857 1.2882506 1.24703572 1.2882506h21.48327168c.8458575 0 1.2687863-.4366542 1.2687863-1.3099627zm-5.9950155-20.4410268v6.114667c0 .6694561-.3428744 1.0041841-1.0286232 1.0041841h-10.1294464c-.2622159 0-.4773054-.0802141-.6452685-.2406423s-.2519447-.3642806-.2519447-.6115572v-6.1363791l.0217506-.1311772h12.0326259zm-4.9437353.8295827v5.0010178h3.0405558v-5.0010178zm-9.7134658 18.8035735v-7.753025c0-.5241057.1604108-.9025595.4812325-1.1353613.1897138-.1453504.4011782-.2180256.6343932-.2180256h14.7451099c.3208217 0 .5905898.1091636.8093044.3274907s.3280719.5023936.3280719.8521995v7.8181612l-.0217506.1094652h-16.9772676z"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Software<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="images"><!---->
<a class="menu-item images style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/details/image" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuImages">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="imagesTitleID imagesDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="imagesTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Images icon</title>
<desc id="imagesDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of two photographs.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m20.8219178 15.3769871c0 1.1136708-.8767123 1.8932404-1.8630137 1.8932404s-1.9726027-.8909367-1.9726027-1.8932404c0-1.0023038.8767123-1.8932404 1.9726027-1.8932404.9863014 0 1.8630137.8909366 1.8630137 1.8932404zm-5.9178082-3.7864808h15.4520548v6.0138225l-1.9726028-3.3410125-2.6301369 6.3479237-2.1917809-2.67281-6.1369863 5.1228859h-2.5205479zm-1.7534247-1.6705063v14.9231892h18.8493151v-14.9231892zm-2.9589041 7.2388604c.2191781 0 1.9726028-.3341012 1.9726028-.3341012v-2.0046075l-4.1643836.5568354c.43835616 4.7887846.87671233 9.9116704 1.31506849 14.700455 6.02739731-.5568354 13.26027401-1.5591391 19.39726031-2.1159746-.1095891-.5568354-.1095891-2.0046075-.2191781-2.67281-.4383562.1113671-1.4246575 0-1.8630137.1113671v.8909367c-5.1506849.4454683-10.3013699 1.1136708-15.4520548 1.6705062.109589-.111367-.5479452-7.0161262-.9863014-10.8026071z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Images<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="donate"><!---->
<a class="menu-item donate style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/donate/" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuDonate">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg width="40" height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="donateTitleID donateDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="donateTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Donate icon</title>
<desc id="donateDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of a heart shape</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m30.0120362 11.0857287c-1.2990268-1.12627221-2.8599641-1.65258786-4.682812-1.57894699-.8253588.02475323-1.7674318.3849128-2.8262192 1.08047869-1.0587873.6955659-1.89622 1.5724492-2.512298 2.63065-.591311-1.0588196-1.4194561-1.9357029-2.4844351-2.63065-1.0649791-.69494706-2.0039563-1.05510663-2.8169316-1.08047869-1.2067699-.04950647-2.318187.17203498-3.3342513.66462439-1.0160643.4925893-1.82594378 1.2002224-2.42963831 2.1228992-.60369453.9226769-.91173353 1.9629315-.92411701 3.1207641-.03715043 1.9202322.70183359 3.7665141 2.21695202 5.5388457 1.2067699 1.4035084 2.912594 3.1606786 5.1174721 5.2715107 2.2048782 2.1108321 3.7565279 3.5356901 4.6549492 4.2745742.8253588-.6646243 2.355647-2.0647292 4.5908647-4.2003145s3.9747867-3.9171994 5.218707-5.3448422c1.502735-1.7723316 2.2355273-3.6186135 2.1983769-5.5388457-.0256957-1.7608832-.6875926-3.2039968-1.9866194-4.3302689z"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->Donate<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
<media-button class="style-scope media-menu x-scope media-button-1" data-mediatype="more"><!---->
<a class="menu-item more style-scope media-button" href="https://archive.org/about/" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavMenuMore">

<span class="icon style-scope media-button">

<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="ellipsesTitleID ellipsesDescID" class="style-scope media-button">
<title id="ellipsesTitleID" class="style-scope media-button">Ellipses icon</title>
<desc id="ellipsesDescID" class="style-scope media-button">An illustration of text ellipses.</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope media-button" d="m10.5 17.5c1.3807119 0 2.5 1.1192881 2.5 2.5s-1.1192881 2.5-2.5 2.5c-1.38071187 0-2.5-1.1192881-2.5-2.5s1.11928813-2.5 2.5-2.5zm9.5 0c1.3807119 0 2.5 1.1192881 2.5 2.5s-1.1192881 2.5-2.5 2.5-2.5-1.1192881-2.5-2.5 1.1192881-2.5 2.5-2.5zm9.5 0c1.3807119 0 2.5 1.1192881 2.5 2.5s-1.1192881 2.5-2.5 2.5-2.5-1.1192881-2.5-2.5 1.1192881-2.5 2.5-2.5z" fill-rule="evenodd"></path>
</svg>

</span>
<span class="label style-scope media-button"><!---->More<!----></span>

</a>
<!----></media-button>
<!---->
</div>
</nav>
<!----></media-menu>
<button class="hamburger style-scope primary-nav" tabindex="1" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavHamburger">
<icon-hamburger class="style-scope primary-nav x-scope icon-hamburger-1"><!---->
<svg height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" width="40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="hamburgerTitleID hamburgerDescID" class="style-scope icon-hamburger">
<title id="hamburgerTitleID" class="style-scope icon-hamburger">Hamburger icon</title>
<desc id="hamburgerDescID" class="style-scope icon-hamburger">An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon.</desc>
<path d="m30.5 26.5c.8284271 0 1.5.6715729 1.5 1.5s-.6715729 1.5-1.5 1.5h-21c-.82842712 0-1.5-.6715729-1.5-1.5s.67157288-1.5 1.5-1.5zm0-8c.8284271 0 1.5.6715729 1.5 1.5s-.6715729 1.5-1.5 1.5h-21c-.82842712 0-1.5-.6715729-1.5-1.5s.67157288-1.5 1.5-1.5zm0-8c.8284271 0 1.5.6715729 1.5 1.5s-.6715729 1.5-1.5 1.5h-21c-.82842712 0-1.5-.6715729-1.5-1.5s.67157288-1.5 1.5-1.5z" fill="#999" fill-rule="evenodd" class="style-scope icon-hamburger"></path>
</svg>
<!----></icon-hamburger>
</button>
</nav>
<!----></primary-nav>
<media-slider class="style-scope ia-topnav x-scope media-slider-1"><!---->
<div class="overflow-clip closed style-scope media-slider">
<div class="information-menu closed style-scope media-slider">
<div class="info-box style-scope media-slider">
<media-subnav class="style-scope media-slider x-scope media-subnav-1"><!----><!----></media-subnav>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<!----></media-slider>
</div>
<desktop-subnav class="style-scope ia-topnav x-scope desktop-subnav-1"><!---->
<ul class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="about style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/"><!---->About<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="blog style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://blog.archive.org/"><!---->Blog<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="projects style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/projects/"><!---->Projects<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="help style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/faqs.php"><!---->Help<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="donate style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/donate/"><!---->Donate<!---->
<svg width="40" height="40" viewBox="0 0 40 40" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" aria-labelledby="donateTitleID donateDescID" class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<title id="donateTitleID" class="style-scope desktop-subnav">Donate icon</title>
<desc id="donateDescID" class="style-scope desktop-subnav">An illustration of a heart shape</desc>
<path class="fill-color style-scope desktop-subnav" d="m30.0120362 11.0857287c-1.2990268-1.12627221-2.8599641-1.65258786-4.682812-1.57894699-.8253588.02475323-1.7674318.3849128-2.8262192 1.08047869-1.0587873.6955659-1.89622 1.5724492-2.512298 2.63065-.591311-1.0588196-1.4194561-1.9357029-2.4844351-2.63065-1.0649791-.69494706-2.0039563-1.05510663-2.8169316-1.08047869-1.2067699-.04950647-2.318187.17203498-3.3342513.66462439-1.0160643.4925893-1.82594378 1.2002224-2.42963831 2.1228992-.60369453.9226769-.91173353 1.9629315-.92411701 3.1207641-.03715043 1.9202322.70183359 3.7665141 2.21695202 5.5388457 1.2067699 1.4035084 2.912594 3.1606786 5.1174721 5.2715107 2.2048782 2.1108321 3.7565279 3.5356901 4.6549492 4.2745742.8253588-.6646243 2.355647-2.0647292 4.5908647-4.2003145s3.9747867-3.9171994 5.218707-5.3448422c1.502735-1.7723316 2.2355273-3.6186135 2.1983769-5.5388457-.0256957-1.7608832-.6875926-3.2039968-1.9866194-4.3302689z"></path>
</svg>
<!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="contact style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/contact.php"><!---->Contact<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="jobs style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/jobs.php"><!---->Jobs<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="volunteer style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/volunteerpositions.php"><!---->Volunteer<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope desktop-subnav">
<a class="people style-scope desktop-subnav" href="https://archive.org/about/bios.php"><!---->People<!----><!----></a>
</li>
<!---->
</ul>
<!----></desktop-subnav>
<search-menu class="style-scope ia-topnav x-scope search-menu-1" tabindex="-1"><!---->
<div class="search-menu tx-slide closed style-scope search-menu" aria-hidden="true" aria-expanded="false">
<!---->
<label class="style-scope search-menu">
<input form="nav-search" type="radio" name="sin" class="style-scope search-menu" value="" checked="">
Search Metadata
</label>
<!---->
<label class="style-scope search-menu">
<input form="nav-search" type="radio" name="sin" class="style-scope search-menu" value="TXT">
Search text contents
</label>
<!---->
<label class="style-scope search-menu">
<input form="nav-search" type="radio" name="sin" class="style-scope search-menu" value="TV">
Search TV news captions
</label>
<!----><!---->
<label class="style-scope search-menu">
<input form="nav-search" type="radio" name="sin" class="style-scope search-menu" value="WEB">
Search archived websites
</label>
<!---->
<a class="advanced-search style-scope search-menu" href="https://archive.org/advancedsearch.php" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavAdvancedSearch">Advanced Search</a>
</div>
<!----></search-menu>

<signed-out-dropdown class="style-scope ia-topnav x-scope signed-out-dropdown-1" tabindex="-1"><!---->
<nav class="initial style-scope signed-out-dropdown" aria-hidden="true" aria-expanded="false">
<ul class="style-scope signed-out-dropdown">
<!---->
<li class="style-scope signed-out-dropdown"><!----><a class="style-scope signed-out-dropdown" href="https://archive.org/account/signup" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavSignUpDropdown"><!---->Sign up for free<!----></a><!----></li>
<!---->
<li class="style-scope signed-out-dropdown"><!----><a class="style-scope signed-out-dropdown" href="https://archive.org/account/login" data-event-click-tracking="BetaTopNav|NavLogInDropdown"><!---->Log in<!----></a><!----></li>
<!---->
</ul>
</nav>
<!----></signed-out-dropdown>

</noscript> </ia-topnav>

</div>
<input class="js-tvsearch" type="hidden" value='{"ands":[],"minday":"06/04/2009","maxday":"05/05/2021"}'/>


<div style="display: block; float: right; width: 28px; margin-top: 4px;">
<a href="#" onclick="window.open('https://www.facebook.com/sharer/sharer.php?u=' + encodeURIComponent(window.location.href), '', 'height=400,width=600'); return false;"
class="social_button" title="Share on Facebook"><span class="iconochive-facebook" style="color:#3b5998;font-size:160%;"></span></a>
<a href="#" onclick="window.open('https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?text=' + encodeURIComponent(window.location.href) + '&via=internetarchive', '', 'height=400,width=600'); return false;"
class="social_button" title="Share on Twitter"><span class="iconochive-twitter" style="color:#1dcaff;font-size:160%;"></span></a>
</div>
<script>
var config = {"api_url_anchor": "/__wb/search/anchor?q={{query}}", "api_url_calendar_captures": "/__wb/calendarcaptures?url={{url}}\u0026selected_year={{year}}", "api_url_host": "/__wb/search/host?q={{query}}", "api_url_metadata": "/__wb/search/metadata?q={{query}}", "api_url_sitemap": "/web/timemap/json?url={{url}}/\u0026fl=timestamp:4,original,urlkey\u0026matchType=prefix\u0026filter=statuscode:200\u0026filter=mimetype:text/html\u0026collapse=urlkey\u0026collapse=timestamp:4\u0026limit=100000", "api_url_sparkline": "/__wb/sparkline?output=json\u0026url={{url}}\u0026collection=web", "bundling": {"public_path": "/static/bower_components/wayback-search-js/dist"}, "diff": {"cdxServer": "/web/timemap", "diffgraphPrefix": "/web/diffgraph/", "limit": 3000, "maxSunburstLevelLength": "70", "snapshotsPrefix": "/web/", "sparklineURL": "/__wb/sparkline", "urlPrefix": "/web/diff/", "waybackDiscoverDiff": "https://gext-api.archive.org/services/simhash", "webMonitoringProcessingURL": "https://gext-api.archive.org/services/diff"}, "features": {"beta_promo": false, "changes_calendar": true, "landing": "carousel", "landing_layout_with_trend": false, "search": "v1"}, "num_of_explored_web_pages": "544 billion", "url_playback": "/web/{{date}}/{{url}}", "url_playback_screenshot": "/web/", "url_save_page_now": "/save/{{query}}", "url_search_page": "/web//{{url}}", "url_thumb": "https://web.archive.org/thumb/{{item}}?generate=1"};
$(document).ready(function(){
var e = $('#react-wayback-search'), c = e.attr('component');
ReactDOM.render(
React.createElement(window[c], { config: config }),
e.get(0)
);
});
</script>
<div id="react-wayback-search" component="WaybackSearchComponent"></div>
<noscript>
<div class="no-script-message">
The Wayback Machine requires your browser to support JavaScript, please email <a href="mailto:info@archive.org">info@archive.org</a><br/>if you have any questions about this.
</div>
</noscript>
<footer>
<div id="footerHome">
<p>
The Wayback Machine is an initiative of the
<a href="//archive.org/">Internet Archive</a>,
a 501(c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of
Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form.
<br/>Other <a href="//archive.org/projects/">projects</a> include
<a href="https://openlibrary.org/">Open Library</a> &amp;
<a href="https://archive-it.org">archive-it.org</a>.
</p>
<p>
Your use of the Wayback Machine is subject to the Internet Archive's
<a href="//archive.org/about/terms.php">Terms of Use</a>.
</p>
</div>
</footer>
</body>
</html>
 
Top Bottom